Enhanced Immune Infiltration in Prostate Cancer Through Combined Anti-PD-1 Immunotherapy and Androgen Deprivation Therapy

October 22, 2023

Compared to other cancer types, primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) exhibit a relatively low presence of immune cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) triggers a complex immune response in localized prostate cancer, but the TME composition in metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) and the impact of ADT and other treatments in this context remain poorly understood. 

In a study of patients from a phase 2 clinical trial (NCT03951831) involving chemo-hormonal therapy and anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, comprehensive single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) profiling of metastatic sites was conducted. This analysis revealed persistent immune subpopulations across various metastatic sites, highlighting also dynamic changes in response to treatment and their correlation with clinical outcomes. The research also uncovered a therapy-resistant tumor subpopulation with distinct transcriptional characteristics that expanded in treatment-resistant patients.

SOURCE: https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(23)00362-8